Land transport or road transport means the movement of people or goods from one place to another other than rail. In such a way that it should be done only from corridors such as highways and roads. Road transport is the oldest type of transportation and was done by caravan thousands of years ago. Today, due to the advancement of technology and the construction of large and wide roads, land transportation rights have been established and the transportation or movement of people through this route must be done in accordance with the relevant laws.
These laws were enacted at a time when road transport was booming and many cars were required to be operated in accordance with the orders of the Ministry of Roads and Transportation.

After the transit trucks entered the field, many traders thought of using them; By transporting their goods through these trucks, they significantly reduced the transit costs and made a lot of profit in this way. At least road transport has gained a special place in trade, which we will discuss in more detail below, and road transit rights.

Land transportation position in Iran
One of the important achievements of Iran after the victory of the Islamic Revolution is the development of infrastructure and the expansion of the country’s roads. After the automobile industry flourished in the country, the project of improving and developing roads was put on the agenda, and with the construction of major roads, the position of land transportation in Iran became very important. This also led to the regulation and reform of land transportation rights. Many freight and passenger companies contributed to the prosperity of this important industry by importing advanced vehicles and made changes in road laws.

Improvement of roads in Iran significantly reduced road accidents and reduced road casualties by up to 50%. Of course, it goes without saying that over time and the production of low-quality cars, this figure rose again until the relevant institutions ordered to improve the quality and safety of domestic cars. Many car importers, especially heavy vehicles, are increasingly focusing on land trade and road transport; To the extent that most traders abandoned other modes of transportation due to the unique benefits of transporting goods by transit trucks.
According to statistics published in 1391, Iran has 10,789 kilometers of highways that connect the whole country. There is a special road for land transit trucks next to almost every highway that does not cause road traffic. All road networks in Iran, including roads and highways, include land transportation rights, and transit cars and trucks must comply with them.

Iran’s land routes with other countries
Approximately 8 international highways pass through Iran. Highways AH1, AH2, AH8, AH70, AH71, AH72, AH75 and AH78, which all pass through several cities in Iran. For example, Highway No. 1 starts from the Tushin Belt in central Tokyo, Japan, and passes through several Central Asian countries, entering Iran, passing through Turkey and leading to Bulgaria. Also, Highway 2 starts from Indonesia and leads to western Iran after passing through Asian countries. Other highways connect East Asia to Europe.

Land transport rights for all these routes are in accordance with the contracts concluded between the road members. Forbidden goods such as alcohol, etc. do not have the right to cross the territory of Iran. Of course, in some cases, it is possible to carry them with severe restrictions imposed by the Iranian legal authorities.

Necessary vehicle equipment

These rules include having complete vehicle equipment and must meet all the necessary standards for traffic. This equipment includes first aid kits, fire extinguishers, safety signs such as spindles, tachograph (vehicle speed recorder and driver duration), tire chains, ribbed tires, etc., all of which are mandatory. If a car does not have one of these devices, it will be fined and its activities and those of the service provider may be suspended for some time.

The provisions of the Articles of Association of Land Transport Law shall be communicated to them at the very beginning of the establishment of freight and passenger companies. All these companies are obliged to justify their drivers to the implementation of these provisions; Otherwise, any errors made by offending drivers will be noticed by the service providers. In such a way that if the violations continue to be repeated, their transportation license will be revoked.

Shipping documents
These documents include the status statement, passenger ticket and bill of lading (if you are carrying cargo), which are very important to have with you. The status report is issued by the Ministry of Roads and Transportation and published by the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance. This document is for trips over 20 km and the provisions of it are as follows: if the number of passengers and cargo is exceeded and determined, the company and the driver will be fined.

All provisions of the Articles of Association for Land Transport Law must be signed by the transport companies. If these companies commit violations after signing the articles of association, they will face heavy fines from the Ministry of Roads and Transportation and the traffic police. These laws have been enacted in order to ensure the safety of the passengers and the health of the shipments.
International Land Transport Law
Land transport rights are not limited to domestic transport but also extend beyond internal borders. There are many international terms in this field, some of which are mentioned below.

Incoterms Business Terms
These rules include the rights to send and receive goods between the customer and the seller, and the parties negotiate how to transfer and receive the goods. For example, one of the provisions of this contract is that after the delivery of the goods by the seller to the customs, he will no longer be responsible; In such a way that in case of damage to the cargo, the seller is not responsible.

Customs laws
Another term in land transportation law is related to customs laws. In general, there is no single customs law in the world, and each country has its own laws. Of course, some countries regulate customs duties by concluding multilateral agreements, such as ECO (between eight Asian countries, including Iran). These rules include taxes, value added, insurance, warehousing costs, and more.

Dangerous Goods Convention (ADR)
This convention refers to a set of rules under which the transport of all dangerous goods across Europe is subject to a single law. In such a way that no country has the right to move goods whose land transport, such as radioactive materials, is prohibited across Europe. If observed, the offending country may not have the right to transport the goods by land for several months.