Housing and Urban Development
The beginning of contemporary Iranian architecture can be considered from about 1300 onwards. This is the time when due to political and social changes, the flow of social and economic life in Iran changed. The appearance of Iranian cities was transferred and the necessary buildings for new life such as offices, factories, banks , Railway stations, universities, etc., as well as new housing units and complexes were created in cities.
The evolution of construction in Iran
The study of the evolution of architects’ view of technology in the construction industry and art in Iran, in the period after the Islamic Revolution of 1978, is a topic that this article has examined with a socio-cultural approach and in the form of historical narrative. The problem is that if ecologicalism and indigenous culture are not the focus of study in such a study, this evolution in the age of communication will not be much different from the evolution of the world and its assignment to Iran does not make sense; Therefore, in this article, after a brief review of the situation of the construction industry in the late Pahlavi era, the developments of Iranian construction technology in the five post-revolutionary periods have been followed. The criterion for distinguishing each period from the previous period is the change in cultural attitudes toward technology, and it is shown here that this change in attitudes is closely related to economic profitability. In each period, the views of experts or builders and managers of that time, on construction technology are explained and then, without emphasizing specific buildings, the general trend of building technology of that period is presented based on cultural, socio-economic analytical bases. This study shows the main role of changing attitudes towards the issue of self-sufficiency and national identity in the vast technological developments in this period (compared to the first years of the victory of the revolution and recent years); Developments that start from the settlements and settlements in the early days of the revolution and after passing through the semi-emergency constructions during the war, reach the time when the mainstream of construction is technology to dominate and show superior existence (economic, governmental, technological and. ..), leads and the towers of “single” or “single pseudo” become a symbol of national progress.
Iranian architecture after the revolution
The first period covers from the beginning of the 1979 Revolution to the end of the Iran-Iraq War, which ended in July 1988.
The second period, the period of stabilization and reconstruction of the country, from the end of the war to the present
-After the victory of the revolution, Iranian architects were affected by two parallel phenomena:
1- The first influential development of the ideas and works made by the pioneers of the second generation, who dreamed of reconciling modern architecture with Iranian traditions and culture.
2- The second influential current that was rooted in Western civilization and culture and was more prominent than the first current. Iranian architects’ acquaintance with the postmodern movement that formed in European and American architecture between the 60s and 70s, as well as the postmodern architectural currents of the 90s. It was AD.
Post-revolutionary architects, whose work covers a wide range of artistic tendencies and movements, have tried to push Iranian architecture towards a free identity. The later second generation, especially graduates of the University of Tehran, sought to do so under the influence of the postmodern movement and past Iranian architecture. They were to give Iranian architecture an Iranian background.
A new wave of high-rise construction began in the late 1960s following the increase in land prices in Tehran and the start of density sales by the Tehran municipality, and the northern parts of Tehran mainly affected areas 1, 2, and 3 of the municipality. A government such as the Foundation for the Underprivileged has also encouraged new tower construction or the addition of new blocks to residential complexes under its auspices, regardless of the original design criteria. It is said that in Tehran there are more than 50 towers over 14 floors – mostly in the north Tehran – under construction.