Handicraft is a title that refers to some human handicrafts, with certain criteria. After monogamy, human beings began to make tools and equipment for their daily use, which can be considered as the first examples of handicrafts. With the passage of time and the formation of cities and the expansion of social activities, human handicrafts became more diverse and used. Meanwhile, the invention of the potter’s wheel also made a dramatic change. Soil was one of the first materials used by humans to make the equipment they needed. For years, this device had only a practical aspect for everyday life. In the midst of the Industrial Revolution, the situation changed. The rapid growth of industries and the destruction of traditions worried many and increased attention to this art-industry.
What are handicrafts?
Today, handicrafts are works that are used by hand or by hand and tools for everyday use or merely as decorative items. The raw materials for the production of handicrafts are usually raw and taken from nature. For this reason, the production works of each city and country show the surrounding nature. On the other hand, these works have a cultural and historical burden. Usually the images and motifs that are engraved on them originate from the culture and history of each region.
Another feature of handicrafts is that the number of works produced by masters and their students is limited. Usually each work is unique and does not have a complete resemblance to another. On the other hand, education in this field, although in some cases modernized and found its way to universities, is still considered a traditional activity. For this reason, breast-to-breast education has been passed down from generation to generation.
June 10 has been designated by UNESCO as Crafts Day.
Given the above definition and other definitions for handicrafts, we now need to know what features a product should have that we can call handicrafts and what features a handicraft should have:
Doing part of the production by hand and hand tools, effective human presence in production activities and places of personalization and customization in each product, no similarity with other products or at least rare similarities, no need for high fixed investment in the production process , Having higher added value than other products, the ability to create and develop in an environment including urban and rural and nomadic tents, the ability to transfer experiences and secrets of breast-to-breast production and mastery and apprenticeship
Due to its ancient history, Iran has a long history in the production of handicrafts. On the other hand, having different climates has caused the handicrafts of this country to have a high diversity. Iranian handmade carpet is one of the most famous works in this field. This work is woven in different cities based on different roles and designs. This difference can be seen in other products such as kilims, fabrics, wood and metal industries. Klim, Jajim, production of copper and silver utensils, pottery, mosaic and enameling, carpentry, tapestry and needlework, engraving, inlay, production of various leather products and making jewelry with gold and silver are the most important and prominent Iranian handicrafts.
More than 600 types of handicrafts from different countries are registered in UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). Among these, 450 handicrafts belong to Iran. Of these, 287 types of Iranian handicrafts are produced in Isfahan province. For this reason, in December 2015, the city of Isfahan was selected as a creative international city in the field of handicrafts and traditional arts by UNESCO. This is an effort to preserve the arts that have been produced for years and a way to preserve and survive them.
The number of obsolete and forgotten Iranian handicrafts and crafts has increased in recent years. Many officials and experts have begun efforts. To train young people and market for the products produced, to prevent the disappearance of such indigenous industries.
All kinds of Iranian handicrafts
Iranian products in the field of handicrafts can be classified based on the type of products and tools used for production.
- Tissues using a hanger
The structure is rectangular or square in shape, made of wood or metal. This device is used to produce products to be placed on the floor or in decorative forms such as carpets, kilims, rugs, carpets and rugs. This group is the most famous Iranian handicrafts.
- Hand knitting
This category is also known as traditional textile, which is one of the oldest Iranian handicrafts. This is done with devices that usually require the use of hands and feet at the same time. Goldsmithing is the oldest hand weaving in Iran, examples of which have been discovered from the Sassanid era. The production of velvet, cashmere, shamrock, lame, bedspread and rug fabrics is one of the most common examples of this type of Iranian handicrafts.
This type of sewing is also called surface. In this method, without any previous plan, patterns are created on the fabrics with different types of threads. Needlework, pete embroidery, tapestry embroidery and glabton embroidery are examples of this type of sewing.
The use of soil for the production of everyday tools is one of the first human activities. This work has had many fans all over the world for many years. Pottery works can be used as well as decorative aspects. Of course, ceramics and design on ceramics also fall into the same category.
The glass can deform with each heat. For this reason, a new work can be created from it. Hot glass and shards of glass are formed with pliers and pliers, creating a beautiful effect. Iranian colored glassware is known as one of the most popular handicrafts.
Tanning is an old job. Many animal leather products are produced in Iran; From clothes, bags and shoes to packages for storing expensive items. Fur coats and hats are one of the oldest and most well-known examples of leather handicrafts.
Engraving and engraving on objects to be more beautiful is one of the oldest Iranian arts. This is done on different types of metal, stone and wood, and each has a different name. For example, engraving on wood is called carpentry.
Enamel painting on metal utensils is one of the ancient Iranian arts. Examples of it have also been found in the archeology of ancient sites. In fact, it is a kind of painting on metal tools. From jewelry containers to weapons of war. It is estimated to be 5,000 years old for this art.
- Making expensive jewelry
Gold was of great value and importance in the court of Iranian kings as in other countries. From ancient times, making jewelry with gold and silver has been one of the arts and occupations of the people of this land. Its practical and small examples, such as the ring, are now considered crafts.